Postgraduate Diploma Programmes (Regular and Sandwich)






This programme recognizes the need to update one’s knowledge to be able to meet the challenges posed by our dynamic agricultural sector. Such training would improve on efficiency as well as inspire candidates who have the desire to pursue further studies in agriculture. Improved efficiency raises productivity and places the candidates in advantageous position to better identify and appropriately address the problems of agriculture for the country. Specifically, the postgraduate diploma in Agricultural Economics is designed to provide postgraduate training in Agricultural Economics for Higher National Diploma graduates of Agriculture.  It is also designed to provide agricultural degree to professionals from other academic backgrounds wishing to convert to agriculture and recent graduates of Agriculture who otherwise would not qualify for admission into the Masters Degree Programmes in Agricultural Economics.


The primary objective of this programme is to update the theoretical and practical skills of graduates of agricultural tertiary institutions who have had some field experience. At the end of the training, they are expected to have acquired sufficient theoretical and practical expertise to enable them pursue higher degree programmes, and to function more effectively in their work places as farm managers, data collectors and analysts, and research coordinators, and employers of labour. The Postgraduate Diploma in Agricultural Economies is aimed at: (a) producing graduates with advanced knowledge and skills in Agricultural Economics (b) exposing non-agriculture professionals but in related fields to knowledge and skills and practice of farm management and (c) provide training in specific aspects of farm management and technology transfer.


Courses are offered to candidates who aspire to obtain postgraduate diploma qualification. Candidates are exposed to theoretical economic concepts in agricultural production, marketing, finance and project analysis. Their skills are expected to be effective in the formulation and analysis of agricultural problems using statistical techniques.

Admission Requirements:

Candidates seeking admission for Postgraduate Diploma in Agricultural Economics must have any of the following qualifications from recognized institutions:

  • Matriculation requirement of the University including English and Mathematics requirements,
  • Higher National Diploma in Agriculture with minimum of upper credit,
  • Minimum of Pass Degree at Bachelor’s level in Agriculture or Science, 

Job Opportunities:

Graduates of the postgraduate diploma programme in agricultural economics have a wide range of employment opportunities depending on their areas of specialization. Farm Management and Production Economics; Cooperative Studies, Agribusiness Studies, and resource and Environmental Economics. Generally, job opportunities exist in Federal and State Ministries of Agriculture, Departments of Cooperatives, agribusiness firms, marketing companies, crop and livestock farm enterprises, private organisations in rural development, Local Government Departments of Agriculture, and self employment.

Requirements for Graduation:

The Programme consists of course work, project work and seminars or special topics. To be awarded the Postgraduate Diploma in Agricultural Economics, a candidate must have fulfilled the following:

  1. Passed a minimum of 26 Credit Units as follows:

Course                                                Units

Core                                                      10

Elective                                                  8

Project                                                    6

Seminar                                                  2

Total                                                   26

  1. Carried out a research project relevant to the area of specialization and submitted an acceptable project report.

Duration of Study

Full-time          –       2 Semesters (minimum) and 4 Semesters (maximum)

Part-time         –       4 Semesters (minimum) and 6 Semesters (maximum) 

Stress Areas:

Applied Economic Theory 0
Quantitative Techniques 1
Farm Management & Production Economics 2
Agribusiness & Marketing 3
Agricultural Cooperatives 4
Agricultural Finance & Project Analysis 5
Resource and Environmental Economics 6
Research in Agricultural Economics




Project Report 9


Areas of Specialization

  1. Cooperative Studies
  2. Farm Management and Production Economics
  3. Agribusiness and Marketing
  4. Natural Resources and Environmental Economics
Core Courses for PGD First Semester
AEC 0601 Principles of Macroeconomics 2
AEC 0603 Principles of Microeconomics 2
AEC 0671 Technology Transfer in Agriculture 2
AEC 0673 Statistics and Research Method 2
AEC 0675 Computer Applications in Agriculture 2
AEC 0681 Seminar (Special topics) 1
AEC 0690 Project 6
Total 17
Electives for Agricultural Cooperatives, Second Semester
AEC 0602 Agricultural Development, Policy and Planning 2
AEC 0632 Communication and Personnel Management 2
AEC 0652 Agricultural Project Planning and Analysis 2
AEC 0654 Farm Records and Accounting 2
AEC 0642 Fundamentals and Comparisons of Cooperative System 2
AEC 0656 Agricultural Finance 2
AEC 0682 Seminar (special topics) 1
Total 13
Electives  for Farm Management and Production ECONOMICS, Second Semester
AEC 0602 Agricultural Development, Policy and Planning 2
AEC 0622 Production Economics 2
AEC 0624 Farm Management 2
AEC 0652 Agricultural Project Planning and Analysis 2
AEC 0634 Farm Business Analysis 2
AEC 0656 Agricultural Finance 2
AEC 0682 Seminar (special topics) 1
Total 13
Electives for Agribusiness and Marketing Second Semester
AEC 0602 Agricultural Development, Policy and Planning 2
AEC 0632 Communication and Personnel Management 2
AEC 0652 Agricultural Project Planning and Analysis 2
AEC 0636 Agribusiness Marketing 2
AEC 0638 Marketing of Agricultural Products 2
AEC 0630 Agribusiness Management and Finance 2
AEC 0682 Seminar (special topics) 1
Total 13



Electives for Natural Resources and Environmental Second Semester
AEC 0662 Land Economics 2
AEC 0664 Natural Resource Economics 2
AEC 0602 Agricultural Development  Policy and Planning 2
AEC 0658 Cost Benefit Analysis 2
AEC 0666 Environmental Economics 2
AEC 0652 Agricultural Project Planning and Analysis 2
AEC 0682 Seminar (special topics) 1
Total 13



AEC 0601 – Principles of Macroeconomics

Savings, consumption, income consumption-function, national income employment, classical, neo-classical and Keynesian approaches.  Money and Banking, monetary and fiscal policies.   (2 units)

AEC 0602 – Agricultural Development and Planning

The role of agriculture in economic development. Institutional framework and nature of traditional agriculture.  Past and present agricultural planning in Nigeria. Alternative pricing policy for agricultural inputs and outputs.  Economic incentives to produce.                                                               (2 units)

AEC 0603 – Principles of Microeconomics

Selected micro-economic theories relevant to agriculture. Demand and supply, consumer theories, market structure, theory of the firm, production function.                                                          (2 units)

AEC 0622 – Production Economics

Economics, consumer economics and production economics; input – output, factor-factor and product-product functions; cost functions; maximization and minimization; linear programming.        (2 units)

AEC 0624 –Farm Management

Farm decision-making process; enterprise combinations; enterprise budgets; break-even analysis, sensitivity analysis. Graphical approach to linear programming; case study.                       (2 units)

AEC 0630 – Agribusiness Management

Starting a business; managerial roles; executive responsibilities; external and internal environments of enterprise; structural characteristics of organizations; areas of management; authority and responsibility in organizations; conflict and leadership; managerial functions and areas including decision-making; planning, and management of objectives; case studies.                                                     (2 units)

AEC 0632 – Communication and Personnel Management

History, theory and practice of scientific management; management of cooperative enterprises; cooperative democracy; principles of control and recruitment in cooperatives; personnel policies, promotion, advertising, use of ICT.

AEC 0634 – Farm Business Analysis

Production efficiency; measures of profitability of farm enterprises; economic, technical and pricing efficiency measures; ratios and indices; case studies.                                                       (2 units)

AEC 0636 – Agribusiness Marketing

Primary versus processed agricultural products; product development; product life-cycle; promotion of agricultural products; consumer behavior; market segmentation; market research; pricing strategies; push vs pull strategies; case studies.                                                                                                (2 units)

AEC 0638 – Marketing of Agricultural Products

Importance of marketing in agriculture; approaches to the study of agricultural marketing; elasticity concepts; price determination vs price discovery; perfect competition, monopoly, and monopolistic competition, marketing margins; case studies.                                                                 (2 units)

AEC 0642 – Fundamentals and Comparisons of Cooperative Systems

Types of cooperatives in capitalists, socialist and developing countries, relationship of cooperatives with state organs and other superior state organizations; international and regional cooperative organization, their roles and impact; case studies.                                                                                    (2 units)

 AEC 0652 – Agricultural Projects, Planning and Analysis

Characteristics of agricultural and agro-industrial project cycle; non-discounted and discounted appraisal methods; importance of discount rates, annuity and project life; cash flow preparation.            (2 units)

AEC 0654 – Farm Records and Accounting

Single and double-entry book-keeping; t-accounts; trial balance; balance sheet and profit and loss

accounts; record-keeping in farm operations; objectives and features of auditing verification and valuation of assets and liabilities; depreciation methods; interpretation of balance sheet and ratio analysis. (2 units)

 AEC 0656 – Agricultural Finance

Sources of finance to agriculture; farm firm capitalization; agricultural credit; loan repayment terms; interest rate determination; cost of capital; review of farm records and valuation methods; problems of recording and accounting.                                                                                                (2 units)

AEC 0658 – Cost Benefit Analysis

Economic concepts of costs and benefits; external effects; environmental spillovers, social rationale of welfare economics; economic measures of exact compensation; investment criteria – IRR, DPV normalization procedure for public investment.

AEC   0662 – Land Economics

Review of land as a factor of production. Property rights as related to land tenure, mortgages and assessment. Location theory, land utilization.         (2 units)

AEC   0664 – Natural Resources

Concepts, meaning and types of natural resources. Future consequences of present exploitation and conservation of natural resources for agricultural production, external economies and diseconomies.          (2 units)

AEC   0666 – Environmental Economics

The types of environmental degradation. Types of economic and social costs of environmental pollution in agriculture, mining, oil exploration, refuse disposal etc. Methods of environmental impact assessment and control. Pollution control legislation; incentives and enforcements.(2 units)

AEC 0671 Technological Transfer in Agriculture

Different farming systems. Traditional technologies. Improved farming technologies and their implications. Use of herbicides, fertilizers, improve planting materials and cultural practices                     (2 units)

 AEC 0673– Statistics in Social Research

Classification, types and methods of data collection in agricultural research; meaning and uses of frequency distribution; measures of central tendency and dispersion, moving averages; simple linear regression, tests of hypotheses.                                                                                          (2 units)

AEC 0675 – Computer application in Agriculture

Introduction to various programmes in computer, the use of computer, Farm budget, Linear

Programming, data generation, entry and analysis.                  (2 units)

 AEC 0682– Seminars on Special Topics              (2 units)

AEC 0690 – Project Report

A guided scientific investigation of selected topic/problems.  This involves identification of researchable problems, statement of specific objectives and hypotheses, data collection and analysis.  These processes will lead to special project reports.                                                                         (6 units)